From CUNY Academic Commons
Seven Principles for Good Practice
By Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson
1. Good practice encourages student faculty contact
Frequent student-faculty contact in and out of classes is the most important factor in student motivation and involvement. Faculty concern helps students get through rough times and keep on working. Knowing a few faculty members well enhances students’ intellectual commitment and encourages them to think about their own values and future plans.
2. Good practice encourages cooperation among students
Learning is enhanced when it is more like a team effort than a solo race. Good learning, like good work, is collaborative and social, not competitive and isolated. Working with others often increases involvement in learning. Sharing one’s own ideas and responding to others’ reactions improves thinking and deepens understanding
3. Good practice encourages active learning
Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just sitting in classes listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, and apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.
4. Good practice gives prompt feedback
Knowing what you know and don’t know focuses learning. Students need appropriate feedback on performance to benefit from courses. In getting started, students need help in assessing existing knowledge and competence. In classes, students need frequent opportunities to perform and receive suggestions for improvement. At various points during college, and at the end, students need chances to reflect on what they have learned, what they still need to know, and how to assess themselves.
NOTE: There are two sorts of feedback referred to here–Self reflection and instructor feedback. But there is a third that should be considered–peer feedback as is gained in a Discussion Board.
5. Good practice emphasizes time on task
Time plus energy equals learning. There is no substitute for time on task. Learning to use one’s time well is critical for students and professional alike. Students need help in learning effective time management. Allocating realistic amounts of time means effective learning for students and effective teaching for faculty. How an institution defines time expectations for students, faculty and administrators, and other professional staff can establish the basis for high performance for all.
6. Good practice communicates high expectations
Expect more and you will get it. High expectations are important for everyone– for the poorly prepared, for those unwilling to exert themselves, and for the bright and well motivated. Expecting students to perform well becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy when teachers and institutions hold high expectations of themselves and make extra efforts.
NOTE: High expectations are great but they must also be reasonable. Within the learning capacities of the student. This seems to be especially true for the first year students.
7. Good practice respects diverse talents and ways of learning
There are many roads to learning. People bring different talents and styles of learning to college. Brilliant students in the seminar room may be all thumbs in the lab or art studio. Students rich in hands-on experience may not do so well in theory. Students need to opportunity to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Then they can be pushed to learning in new ways that do not come so easily.
- Chickering, A.W., and Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. Number 47, Fall 1991. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Inc. Reprinted with permission. /FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees /FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/7princip.htm
- 7 principles with suggestions at Grand Rapids Community College. Grand Rapids, MI http://web.grcc.cc.mi.us/ctl/7princip.htm
- IMPLEMENTING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES: Technology as Lever by Arthur W. Chickering and Stephen C. Ehrmann http://www.atl.ualberta.ca/dleweb/Pages/Development/DEV_SevenPrinciples.htm
- Winona State site- 7 principles with examples of how they are implemented http://www.winona.msus.edu/president/seven.htm
- Seven Principles of Effective Teaching: A Practical Lens for Evaluating Online Courses By Charles Graham, Kursat Cagiltay, Byung-Ro Lim, Joni Craner and Thomas M. Duffy Publication: Technology Source b00054e2b6/b495223246cabd6b85256a090058ab98?OpenDocument http://sln.suny.edu/sln/public/original.nsf/dd93a8da0b7ccce0852567 b00054e2b6/b495223246cabd6b85256a090058ab98?OpenDocument
- APPLYING THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES FOR GOOD PRACTICE IN UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION http://www.msu.edu/user/coddejos/seven.htm
- Online Library: Principles of Good Practice in Undergraduate Education Indiana University Bloomington. We offer a framework that will help people on campuses make improvements. http://www.indiana.edu/~icy/omnteach.html#ontime
- Student, faculty and institutional inventories developed to help focus on and evaluate the success of implementing the 7 principles. http://law.gonzaga.edu/ilst/7PsIntro.htm
- The following is a brief summary of the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education as compiled in a study supported by the American Association of Higher education, the Education Commission of States, and The Johnson Foundation. These Seven Principles are also presented in Chickering and Gamson’s book entitled “Applying the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education” (1991). http://www.msu.edu/user/coddejos/seven.htm
- Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever by Arthur W. Chickering and Stephen C. Ehrmann. Since the Seven Principles of Good Practice were created in 1987, new communication and information technologies have become major resources for teaching and learning in higher education. If the power of the new technologies is to be fully realized, they should be employed in ways consistent with the Seven Principles. Such technologies are tools with multiple capabilities; it is misleading to make assertions like “Microcomputers will empower students” because that is only one way in which computers might be used. http://www.aahe.org/technology/ehrmann.htm
- Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education Implementation Ideas http://home.capecod.net/~tpanitz/7ideas.htm